On Friday and Saturday at MAMUN during crisis simulations, delegates represent their assigned countries as special negotiators in an evolving international crisis. Unlike regular committee sessions, delegates are empowered to recommend that their home government use economic, diplomatic, and military resources to resolve the crisis.
Crisis simulations continue over five sessions. Each session lasts two hours. At the end of each two-hour session, the delegates are updated on the status of the crisis. The next group of delegates begins the next session where the last group left off. A summary of the final update is read to the last group and will be made available following the close of session.
Delegates are encouraged to creatively think about how their country would actually respond to the crisis, cooperate with regional allies, build coalitions, and develop group consensus on a multilateral response. Delegate actions ultimately decide the fate of the scenario.
Crisis topics are revealed to delegates upon the beginning of each crisis session and are based on current issues facing the international community, including crises related to health, terrorism, cybersecurity, economic disasters, diplomatic standoffs, interstate conflict, civil wars, and more.
MAMUN 2018 Final Crisis Updates
A: Al-Shabaab Threat in Somalia
On December 15, 2017, the United States suspended aid to the Somali military after discovering signs of corruption. Seeing this opportunity, the Islamist militant group Al-Shabaab who remains in Somalia, began becoming more active. Still after several attacks on Somalia, the United States officials refuse to provide aid to the Somali military. In an attempt to prevent further corruption in Somalia, the United States deployed 3,000 troops, an undisclosed amount of special operation forces, and naval forces from Camp Lemonnier in nearby Djibouti. Many nations seem to be raising eyebrows at the US due to the seemingly secret way they deployed their troops. Once the breaking news of the South African news group, leaking a document which revels “communication” between the United States and Al-Shabaab, became well-known, President Donald J Trump tweeted “This is completely FAKE NEWS! Al-Shabaab and the US would NEVER communicate over formal means of communication. SAD!” After this releasement, the Somali government also released a statement,alleging gross corruption from the US but would be open to additional talks with the US to reestablish their relationship but US had yet to respond. Eventually, moderated discussions with the Saudi Arabian, US advisors, and Somali officials took place and a joint statement was made which said that they would work through the discrepancies in good faith. Due to unhappy citizens in Somalia, because of United States presence, protests erupted over the meeting with the largest crowds residing in Mogadishu. The nations of Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, and Egypt sent in troops to replace the American troops, and while being briefed, the Port of Berbera was bombed. 24 hours later, Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for the bombing. Breaking news later was released stating that the Saudi royal family was the leakers of the location of the recent terrorist attack by Al-Shabaab. With this breaking of news, additional riots began to breakout in the capital of Mogadishu and in Somaliland. Saudi Arabia began to send troops to be mobilized along the Kenyan-Somali border. Al-Shabaab was able to move freely throughout this border and eventually placed an attack on Hosingow, killing almost the entire population of approximately 10,000 people. Seeing need, Kazakhstan sent medical professionals to assist with the injured on the Kenyan-Somali border as a neutral party. These professionals were taken hostage. President Donald J Trump released another tweet stating “The Kenyans and Somalis got what they asked for. We gave them so much and they have failed their people greatly. They can keep their goats. Will take ALOT for the US to think about helping them again!”
Due to the attack on Hosingow, Mogadishu was left with little security, which gave the opportunity for Al-Shabaab to gain access to the Presidential Palace, setting off a series of car bombs around the perimeter, creating a foothold on the city for Al-Shabaab. Since eyes were turned to the terrorist group, refugees still struggle to find basic necessities like food, water, shelter, etc. After investigations by Kazakhstan and Syria, the missing doctors were located in an Al-Shabaab campus in Kenya. A doctor’s finger being chopped off and sent to Kazakhstan officials made up the minds of government officials, despite negotiations failing, to create a tactical campaign to retrieve the missing doctors. The campaign was successful, however, during a debriefing of the doctors, it was discovered that Al-Shabaab planned to bomb the Port of Mogadishu. Regarding the severe refugee issue, the Kenyan government finally closed their borders with heavily armed military presence, their orders being “shoot crossers first, ask questions later.” After closing the Kenyan board, closing off Somalia to the rest of the continent and in theory “securing” the country, some of the troops used to secure the borders have moved to cities across the country to assess the evolving situations with Al- Shabaab and ISIL. Mogadishu is in complete unrest, with riots still on going. The city has been almost completely looted and hospitals are over run. There is now a big fear of an emerging human trafficking crisis throughout the city. While civilians have backed off the US Embassy, there are now major protests outside of the Kenyan embassy with the closure of their borders.
Additional attempts by Al-Shabaab to retake both the port of Mogadishu and Berbera have failed as the US moved forward in patrolling the Sea of Aden without the approval of the Somalian government. President DJT tweets “We have the very best Navy in the world. We have completely solved the problem in Somalia and they are going to restructure their government just like we asked the first time! What else would you expect!” The international community is waiting on a response from Somalia.
The situation is far from settled and experts internationally agree it may take years for Somalia to completely recover from this.
B: Conflict in Kashmir
An emergency session of the United Nations Security Council was held to condemn all countries that harbor, tolerate, or fund terrorists. All nations reiterated the importance of not negotiating with terrorists. A resolution was passed establishing the creation of a joint coalition with China, Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan to combat terrorist organizations in the region. A second resolution was introduced by the United States urging China to lessen their military presence on the Ladkah Line of Actual Control, also known as the China-India demarcation line. The resolution condemned China for using a humanitarian situation for an excuse to annex the long disputed western area of Aksai-Chin in Eastern Kashmir. The second resolution was vetoed by China.
A summit facilitated by Australia including China, Pakistan, and India took place in Sydney. The trilateral negotiation addressed the terrorist presence in the region and the disputed areas of eastern Kashmir. Foreign Minister Wang Yi, representing the Chinese delegation addressed the decades long disputed region of Aksai-Chin region, claiming the area belongs to China and any Indian presence in the area is an invasion of sovereignty. The Summit successfully addressed the refugee problem, but Foreign Minister Wang seems unconvinced that Pakistan and India are capable of eliminating any terrorist threat, even alluding to Pakistan’s long rumored potential connection to the Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorist organization. They refused to remove any military troops from the Nubra River Valley. China did offer to fix the Nubra dam for India, the destroyed dam responsible for the Nubra River Valley flooding, even boasting their engineers’ ability to make the best hydroelectric structure in the region.
Two weeks following the Summit, China released an official statement announcing the complete rebuilding of the Nubra River Dam. “The Chinese built Nubra River Dam is an example of the excellent infrastructure China can offer to this region,” proclaimed Foreign Minister Wang. Satellite imagery shows a 500 person civilian civil service encampment at the dam and the surrounding area. With several 100-person military encampments about 100 miles spread out to the West of the Nubra River Dam for protection. When asked about the civilian and military presence, Chinese President Xi Jinping asserted, “All of Aksai-Chin has finally been returned to China.” Caught off guard by this statement, Pakistan and India independently expressed outrage. “China purposely misled us to annex land that is not theirs,” proclaimed Indian Prime Minister Modi. “They used an unstable situation to gain political and geographic control of Indian controlled Kashmir.”
At this time China has no intention of returning to the original demarcation line.
C: Ransomware and Global Cyber-Security
The ransomware WannaCry2, which began in Eastern Ukraine, quickly spread to over 160 countries. Nations across the globe in Latin America, Europe, Asia, and the Pacific suffered severe economic and social repercussions as the ransomware forced some nations to shut down all internet access, or in cases like Australia, the ransomware affected so many devices that the island could not communicate with other nations. As domestic companies halted operations in South America causing food and supply shortages, a plan to remove tariffs as well as an increase of humanitarian aid sent helped these nations combat these problems.
By a stroke of good luck, the solution to WannaCry2 was discovered accidentally by Microsoft, who released the kill switch to prevent any further infection, as well as reversing the effects on the devices that were impacted. The regions that were heavily impacted by loss of devices have seen improvements as their systems are up and operating again.
An oversight committee analyzed the report from the Russian investigation and found that it was truthful in stating that the Russian government did not receive the $1 billion USD from Peru. In addition, further investigation led by Ukraine and Russia show signs pointing to the attack being an attempt at framing the Russian Federation. The group Caucasus Emirate, which has not been active since 2016, claimed on social media that they were the true perpetrators or WannaCry2. Because they were underground for almost 2 years, they were not suspected to be involved at all. The intense accusations against the Russian government by other nations has negatively impacted their relations with other nations, and has the potential to prevent future compromise and relations from existing.
While the erasure of WannaCry2 will prevent further complications, the damage it caused to international relations is still having ramifications. The most severe escalation of this conflict was the release of the exact location of Israeli missiles located in the Gaza Strip as a result of the Israeli government holding 300 Palestinian minors prisoner. An emergency meeting of the UN Security Council was called, where they discussed the immediate disarmament of Israel due to its direct violation of multiple armament treaties. This motion was vetoed by the United States, but it is clear what members of the international community think about Israel being armed. Even with the veto, Israel is in the works of moving the exposed missile to another location with no mention of whether they will dismantle the weapons or not.
D: Biohazard threat in Europe
After 2 murders occurred at the Tihange nuclear facility in Belgium, a caucus of European nations met to address potential threats to uranium security in Europe. After additional investigation, it was discovered that the murders were committed by known ISIS operatives and also that those same operatives had successfully planted a virus into the facility’s computer system. Later, it was discovered that the virus had spread through the European Power Grid infrastructure. Furthermore, the interrogation of a hacker in Turkey confirmed that the virus originated from a group known as RedHack.
In order, to remove the virus from their systems, the European nations elected to systematically take the power grid offline (region by region) and wipe the computer systems controlling electricity distribution. While these blackouts were occurring 5 ISIS operatives snuck back into the Tihange nuclear facility (dressed as security guards), and were able to steal 3 uranium fuel rods.
In response to the stolen fuel rods, the European nations started to seal off their borders, revoking the privilege of EU citizens and goods to travel freely from one nation to another. Due to this enhanced security, European citizens began to protest and question why their rights were being restricted. In an attempt to quell these outbursts, the European nations elected to disclose that the borders were being restricted in an attempt to capture high profile terrorists. The response to this disclosure was panic, and as a result financial markets dropped dramatically.
Increase security at the borders, along with help from the US CIA, successfully captured 2 of the missing ISIS operatives as well as 1 of the 3 missing fuel rods at the France-Belgium border. Unfortunately, however, 2 of the remaining ISIS operatives were able to successfully sneak one of the remaining fuel rods into France and denoted a dirty bomb on the Champs Elysees in Paris, killing more than 50 people in the blast and hospitalizing more than 200 more.
Working quickly, the French government was able to evacuate the affected area and begin cleaning up the radiation contamination. For the rest of the continent, the result of the dirty bomb was a complete collapse of the economy, as well as outrage from the public that their governments were not able to protect them from a nuclear attack within their own borders.
Finally, in the wake of the dirty bomb, the European countries finally decided to take drastic measures, deploying troops and surveillance drones to search for the final ISIS operative and uranium fuel rod. This increased search resulted in the capture of the final ISIS operative and fuel rod by Italian troops, just outside of the city of Rome, where he was planning to build another dirty bomb.
While the capture of this operative ended the impending nuclear threat, Europe was still facing substantial issues. Not only had the regional economy transitioned into a sizable recession, but political issues had arisen as well. In the wake of all the destruction and lack of transparency, the European citizens erupted into protest, stating that they could no longer trust their government to keep them safe. In response to these issues, the European governments have been disclosing all information regarding the crisis and are implementing policies to help revive the economy. This process will likely take awhile to truly take hold, but eventual recovery seems likely. That being said, however, the masterminds of the ISIS-RedHack cooperative attack are still likely at large.