A. Promotion of international cooperation to combat illicit financial flows and strengthen good practices on assets return to foster sustainable development (17f)
Illicit financial flows (IFFs) are illegal funds earned, traded, and/or transferred across international borders. While previously more obscure internationally, IFFs have risen as a core development issue and prominent threat to the international community, primarily to developing countries. It is estimated that approximately $1T a year flows out these nations that could have been realized as tax revenue streams allowing these countries to support domestic sustainable economic growth. They have been identified in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and Sustainable Development (Goal 16, target 16.4) for the international community to focus significantly in reducing illicit financial and arms flows by 2030. IFFs have historically been tied to criminal activity, political corruption schemes, abuse of power, human trafficking rings, and drug trafficking, among other known international and domestic threats to the international community. They are also prominently used as a means of evading sanctions imposed by the international community. As the international community explores the overall implications of IFF’s continuous rise, this committee must determine what immediate and urgent next steps should be taken.
B. Measures to prevent terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction (100t)
The UN’s General Assembly and Security Council are calling for global cooperation in combating and the disarmament of all threats to humanity both physical and psychological. With the recent terrorist attacks, carried out by and accredited to the Islamic State, Al-Shabaab, and Boko Haram, the need to prevent the accessibility of financial, technological, and material components required to generate weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by “non-state actors” and terrorist groups is dire. These are historically understood as chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) catastrophically destructive weapons affecting the innocent more than anyone. While terrorists accessing and deploying biological, radiological, and nuclear WMDs are at the forefront of the global community’s security watch, they are logistically challenging for terrorists to acquire. This has allowed for nations states to fall victim to devastating chemical attacks. Identifying incentives and motivations for non-state actors to resort to the utilization of WMD is crucial for the UN in order to be successful in preventative measures and regulations.
C. The risk of nuclear proliferation in the Middle East (103)
The UN and international community’s efforts to declare world-wide nuclear non-proliferation began in 1968 with the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). At its inception there were only 5 countries to have developed nuclear weapons: the United States, Russia (former Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, France, and China. Presently, there are approximately 22,000 nuclear weapons known in the world. With capabilities for devastating destruction and mass casualties, as demonstrated by the US at the end of World War II, non-proliferation needs to be used as an avenue to ease global tensions and deter future programs from forming while allowing for regulated development of nuclear energy and alternative resources. Today we face numerous issues surrounding nuclear proliferation, including Israel’s signatory status on the NPT, the potential threat of emerging nuclear programs globally, especially those who are not compliant with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and call for increased proliferation from states where nuclear weapons and WMD have the potential to destabilize already tumultuous regions. Among frequent considerations in risk prevention is establishing Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (NWFZ), and establishing accountability for nations who possess nuclear weapons as well as those who have the resources to do so.